What is Indrayan Phal (Citrullus colocynthis):
Indrayan Phal Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple) is an important plant that is widely distributed in the desert areas of the world. It is a valuable cucurbit plant, with wide medicinal uses and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential. 

It is evident from the literature that Citrullus colocynthis possesses a wide range of medicinal uses and has been well studied for its antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities; however its therapeutic potential for gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders remains to be explored.

Critical analysis revealed that the plant has huge potential for pharmaceutical development.

Other Names: Citrullus colocynthis, Bitter Apple, Colocynth, Bitter cucumber, Egusi, Vine of Sodom, Colocynth, Peikkumatti, Hanjal , Paaparbudam , indrayan, panjot, indrabaruni  , badi indrayan, ghorumba, indarayan  ,hamekkae, hara-mekki-kayi, kattuvellari, kadu-indravani  , atmaraksha, brihadvaruni, brihatphala  , kumatti, pey-komatti  , chitti-papara  , hanzal, indyaran, shahme-hinzal, Cucumis colocynthis, Colocynthis vulgaris, Cucurbitaceae, Gudumba, Colocynth, Desert Gourd, Gudamba Indrayan Fruit

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Indrayan Fruit Uses:
The plant has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses including in diabetes, leprosy, common cold, cough, asthma, bronchitis, jaundice, joint pain, cancer, toothache and wound. Several bioactive chemical constituents from fruits were recorded such as glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and fatty acids. The isolation and identification of curcurbitacins A to L and Colocynthosides A and B were also reported.

The fruit of Citrullus colocynthis has been studied extensively for its wide range of biological activities which include antioxidant activity; cytotoxic activity; antidiabetic activity; antilipidemic activity; insecticide activity; antimicrobial activity; anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme expression; anti-arthritic effects against arthritis induced by collagenase or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway; antitumor effects against colon cancer

Through inhibition of MAPKs signaling pathway in human colon cancer cell line (HCT116); antioxidant properties against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC); antiviral activities against hepatitis B virus.